SSC Textbook points for Homi Bhabha 6th Std Exam

It is observed that in 6th Std Homi Bhabha Exam, some questions are often asked from SSC board science textbooks. These are not significant from the point of view of understanding science concepts. But from exam perspective, they might be very useful!

So, we have compiled some points from SSC science textbooks. Do go through them in the last few days before the exam.

From 5th Std SSC textbook:

  1. Rotation of earth produces day and night.
  2. Revolution of earth with inclined axis produces seasons
  3. Waxing moon = shukla paksha, waning moon = Krishna paksha
  4. A day of lunar month is called tithi.
  5. Lunar month = period from one new moon to the next. Which is 28 to 30 days.
  6. 1 year = 365 days and 6 hours
  7. Rituchakra = cycle of 6 seasons: vasant, grishma, varsha, sharad, hemant, shishir
  8. Plumb line – a string attached to a some weight. (called ‘Olamba’) used to get vertical line.
  9. Chandrayaan and Mangalyaan (or MOM mars orbit mission) are ISRO (Indian space research Organization) missions.
  10. Water bodies of different shapes and sizes formed along coast=sea, bay, strait, gulf, creek
  11. Streams of water = rills (smallest), brooks, streams, rivers.
  12. Farming seasons: Kharif- june to October. Rabi – Oct to March. Summer crops- March to June
  13. Mot- huge leather bag. Driven by oxen to draw water.
  14. M.S Swaminathan – green revolution in india
  15. Food preserved by drying: papad, kurdai, sandage, wheat, daals, semolina (Shevaya)
  16. Examples of preservatives: sugar, salt, asafoetida (hing), mustard, oil and vinegar
  17. Vehicle exhaust: CO, NO2, SO2, small particles of carbon and lead
  18. Plant trees like: banyan, peepul, neem, karanj. They adapt easily to local environment
  19. Filtering water: Water has to be passed through a bottle with different layers: course sand then fine sand, then powdered coal and then through cloth tied at the end of the bottle.
  20. Paithani of Paithan and Yeola (saree), Himroo shawls from Aurangabad, bedsheets and bedspreads from Solapur, handloom and powerloom cloth from Ichalkaranji
  21. Lucknow chikan, Kashmir silk, Benarasi silk, Kadiyal, Pitambari, Pochampalli, Narayanpet, Kanjivaram, Patola and Mysore silk are some types of sarees.
  22. Mumbai was famous for its textile mills. The humid weather facilitates the manufacture of long thread for making cloth.
  23. Indian cheetah – An extinct animal
  24. Biodiversity parks, Devrai (known as ‘Sharanvan’ in madhya Pradesh) are sanctuaries of ancient times
  25. National parks Kaziranga National Park, the Tadoba National Park
  26. Sanctuaries: Radhanagari Sanctuary for bisons.
  27. Mayani lake formed due to a dam built on the Chand river in Satara district. Flamingos come here from the Siberia
  28. There is a Maldhok (Great Indian Bustard) sanctuary at Nannaj in Solapur
  29. Morachi Chincholi 50 km from Pune: tamarind trees. and peacocks
  30. Water hyacinth – plant which floats on water surface. Covers entire lake.
  31. Skin of the grain is called bran. It provides fibre. Called roughage.
  32. The oil makes the paper translucent.
  33. proteins: yoghurt, khoya and paneer
  34. Chikki or Gud-dani: nuts + jaggery
  35. Small intestine in adults is about 7 meters. Large intestine is 1.5 m long
  36. If one does not drink enough water once becomes constipated
  37. Skin diseases: ringworm, scabies
  38. Separate quarantined wards in hospitals: disease like tuberculosis or swine flu
  39. The spittle of a person who has tuberculosis is collected in a vessel and covered with a germicide like phenyle.
  40. Kanaad Maharshi: all substances are made of minute particles ‘peelav’.
  41. Names of tobacco products such as gutka, cigarettes, bidis, masheri, mawa, panmasala
  42. Alcoholism causes diseases of the liver, intestines and urinary bladder
  43. The method of using a number of different tests to determine whether the evidence is reliable is called the scientific method. dating techniques: Carbon-14 (invented by Willard Libby), Tree-rings analysis called Dendrochronology
  44. evolution: gradual and continuous change.
  45. Dinosaur = Deinos-sauros (Greek) = terrible lizard
  46. Egg laying mammals: platypus, anteater
  47. Apes are somewhat like humans in appearance
  48. Charles Darwin’s work: ‘The Descent of Man’, ‘On the Origin of Species’
  49. Carl Linnaeus had introduced his method of classifying animals
  50. Homo habilis = the one who uses his hands skilfully. he was forager (searches widely for food)
  51. Homo erectus could survive in that extremely cold climate because he had learnt to use fire.
  52. Homo Neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man): made tools with wood and stone. ate meat roasted on fire. Knew the art of making fire by rubbing wooden sticks or using flintstone to create sparks. communicated by producing grunts and other primary sounds. buried tools, horns, etc. along with the dead body. They applied red ochre to the dead body before burying it
  53. Ochre, or ocher in American English, is a natural clay earth pigment, a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown
  54. Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon Man) = Intelligent man. fully developed larynx. had well-developed language system
  55. Homo sapiens sapiens = modern humans. They cultivated land and keept animals.The name Homo sapiens sapiens reflects their intellectual and cultural rather than their physical prowess
  56. Neanderthal Man and Homo sapiens are both ancestors of the modern humans
  57. The history of human evolution has been reconstructed only with the help of fossilized human bones discovered
  58. Fossils: Over a period of thousands of years, the minerals in the soil get deposited inside the pores of these bones. In the course of this time, the bone disappears but the minerals which take the shape of the bones are left behind. These are actually rocks in the shape of bones
  59. The structure of the larynx, the muscles of the mouth and a very flexible tongue together enable humans to produce a variety of sounds.
  60. Unilinear evolution : only one ancestor species evolving into the next species one after the other. human evolution has not been unilinear
  61. Stone ages: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic
  62. Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic Age. Palaeo’ means ‘old’ and ‘lithos’ means ‘stone’.
  63. percussion technique = beating or striking one large pebble against another to obtain stone flakes
  64. antlers (‘shinga’ of dears) used as hammers
  65. Gangapur near Nashik and Chirki-Nevasa near Nevasa (in the Pravara basin) = Old Stone Age sites in Maharashtra.
  66. Middle Stone Age sites = Bagor in Rajasthan, Bhimbetka (cave painting) in Madhya Pradesh, Langhnaj in Gujarat and Patane in Jalgaon district in Maharashtra
  67. Last glacial period came to an end About 11,000 years ago
  68. The dog is the first animal to have been domesticated. then goat and sheep
  69. The houses at the beginning of the New Stone Age were made of wattle and daub
  70. Wattle and daub is a composite building method used for making walls and buildings, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw
  71. Three Age System by Christian Thomsen to classify ancient objects= Stone age, Copper age, Iron age
  72. First metal used by humans = gold
  73. Harappan civilization (Indus civilization) was the earliest civilization on the Indian subcontinent
  74. ‘Rosetta Stone’ was discovered in 1799 AD – same matter in three different Egyptian scripts
  75. Balag = A musical string instrument made of gold
  76. Fluted core technique:

From 6th SSC Science textbook:

  1. Water is 71% and land is 29% on Earth
  2. Troposphere contains about 80% of the total mass of gases. 19% in the stratosphere
  3. Helium – Used for obtaining low temperature and also for generating lift in airships.
  4. Krypton – Used in fluorescent tubes.
  5. Xenon – Used in flash photography
  6. Ozone (O3) gas in the lower part of stratosphere. ozone is destroyed by carbon tetrachloride or the chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigerators. World ozone day- 16 Sept
  7. Boiling of water is called ebullition.
  8. Nylon, dacron, terylene, terene, polyester, rayon, acrylic are the names of various synthetic threads.
  9. Rayon: Cotton and wood pulp is dissolved in a chemical called sodium hydroxide to make a solution. It is called synthetic silk
  10. The energy resources which do not produce smoke and carbon gases such as carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide are called ‘Green energy resources’.
  11. Sound is propagated more clearly through liquids than through air. Most clearly through solids.
  12. Birds like the robin and the woodcock can recognize the sound of an earthworm in the soil, and find their prey
  13. Some species of grasshopper produce a sound by rubbing their legs together while flying in the air.
  14. Some anglerfish as well as honey mushroom are natural sources of light.
  15. The largest sundial is at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi.
  16. National Science Day’ 28th February beause. Raman discovered his Effect ‘regarding scattering of light’ on that day
  17. Milky Way. = Mandakini.
  18. Variable Stars (Polaris) : The luminance and shape of these stars is not stable. They are constantly contracting or expanding. When a star expands, its brightness decreases. When contracts, its surface temperature increases and appears brighter.
  19. Mercury is the fastest moving planet.
  20. The highest and longest mountain in the solar system ‘Olympus Mons’ is located on Mars.
  21. Rotation time of moon = 27.3 days
  22. Long period comets have period more than 200 yrs. Short period – less than that.
  23. It takes about a thousand years for a 2.5 cm thick layer of mature soil to form.
  24. The proportion of humus in the upper layer of good fertile soil is about 33% to 50%.
  25. lifespan of the mayfly ranges from 1 hour to 24 hours. Giant turtles = 170 yrs. dog is about 12 to 18 years; ostrich lives for 50 years
  26. In case you find an unfamiliar plant or animal in our surroundings you can communicate with these institutes to obtain information about it – Botanical survey of India and zoological survey of India
  27. Vasaka (adulsa), hirada, behada, asparagus are used as medicines.
  28. Some plants, too, can be harmful, as for example, the dodder, parthenium and other weeds.
  29. Pods of the nettle, colocasia leaves cause itching.
  30. Plants like oleander, lantana have strong odours.
  31. The datura plant is poisonous.
  32. Carolus Linnaeus made the first scientific classification of plants
  33. The oleander, hibiscus, lantana, koranti and rose are shrubs that may grow up to two to three metres.
  34. vines like the pumpkin, the railroad creeper, kavali, watermelon or the grapevine
  35. The world’s smallest flower is of the plant called Wolffia or duckweed. Its diameter is as small as 0.5 mm.
  36. In 1993, many people died due to the earthquake at Killari in Latur district
  37. In July 2014, the whole village of Malin in Ambegaon taluka of Pune district was destroyed in a matter of minutes due to a landslide.
  38. November 2015, many people died due to the flooding caused by heavy rains in Tamil Nadu.
  39. When we work in the sun continuously for a long time, the body loses a lot of water and minerals. That is the reason for sunstroke.
  40. cobras, kraits, vipers and sea snakes are poisonous
  41. In the 19th century, the scientist J. Willard Gibbs showed that the characteristic properties of a substance depend on its physical state and the arrangement of particles in it.
  42. Liquid nitrogen is used in animal husbandry.
  43. Charles Goodyear Vulcanization of rubber – tyres
  44. rubber tree – Hevea brasiliensis’. originally from brazil
  45. paper is a kind of network of cellulose fibres. Coniferous trees like pine are used to make paper.
  46. In Maharashtra, there is a paper factory at Ballarpur near Chandrapur
  47. Children of growing age need to get approximately 2000 to 2500 Calories
  48. Casimir Funk discovered that people who ate brown rice were less likely to get beriberi He was able to identify and isolate the substance which prevents this disease. He named it ‘vitamine’.
  49. The food pyramid helps us to choose a balanced diet.
  50. Junk food gives us energy but not other nutrients.
  51. ‘X-rays’ were discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen.
  52. Bones of our body are classified into four types: Flat, Small, Irregular (Vertebra), Long
  53. 22 bones in the skull, 8 in the head and 14 in the face.
  54. Twelve pairs of flat bones called ribs and sternum. = 25 bones form the rib cage
  55. The spine is formed by 33 padlock-shaped bones
  56. stirrup is the smallest bone. longest is femur.
  57. The bones in our body are connected to each other by means of ligaments
  58. The outermost layer of skin is epidermis and the layer below that is dermis. Below that is subcutaneous layer or hypodermis.
  59. As we grow older, the proportion of fat beneath the skin reduces. This causes wrinkles.
  60. Jet black hair is due to pure melanin, while brown, lighter hair is due to sulphur in the melanin and reddish hair, due to iron in the melanin.
  61. From one silk cocoon, 500 metres to 1300 metres of thread can be obtained.
  62. The botanical name of rubber tree is ‘Hevea brasiliensis
  63. Earlier irlis or capes made of grass or sackcloth were used for protection from rain.
  64. Natural substances used to write: Tree bark, leaves, bhurjpatre, pens made from reeds, dhulpatya, stone slates, stone walls in caves, soil and colours made from plants.
  65. Glass can be made from sand and calcium carbonate 

(Just for Laughs!)

Points from 7th Std SSC Science textbook

• dodder has haustorial (sucking) roots for absorbing nutrients from the host plant

• Fish have bladders within the body to help them to float

• Bats can fly with the help of the patagium, a thin fold of skin between their forelegs and hind legs

• Charles Darwin: survival of the fittest, natural selection’.

• breathing roots (pneumatophores),

• Sandy soil has large particles silicon dioxide (quartz).

• Clay soil small particles has a high water holding capacity

• Two tests, pH and electrical conductivity test, are useful in finding out the characteristics of soil

• fertility of land decreases after a harvesting of wheat. Hence, leguminous crops like peanut, moong, moth bean, pea, lentil, Bengal gram, soyabean should be cultivated to restore the fertility of the soil.

• Mushrooms are a rich source of iron and vitamins.

• granivores (seed-eaters), frugivores (fruit-eaters) animals

• saprozoic nutrition- houseflies, ants, spiders: obtain the nutrients by absorbing the liquid organic material from the dead bodies of other animals or from the environment.

• Food is preserved method Smoking: the help of smoke. Aluminium phosphide is used in this method.

• insecticides Melathion is sprayed on the gunny bags containing foodgrains.

• Irradiation X-rays, gamma-rays put. Such plant is installed at lasalgaon (for onion and potato); At Navi Mumbai for spices and condiments.

• cell science = cytology

• There are more than 600 muscles in the human body. 30 muscles in the human face. The study of muscles is called myology.

• Berzelius = symbols to elements

• A molecule of a detergent holds on to a water molecule at one end and an oil molecule at the other. As a result, the molecules of oil mix with the water.

• The property of a substance of spreading on a surface is called surface activity and the substance is said to be a surfactant. Detergents are surface active. One effect of surface activity is lather formation.

• Soap nut (ritha) and soap pod (shikekai) are the natural detergents. contain a chemical named saponin.

• Hard soap is used for washing clothes. It is a sodium salt of fatty acids. Soft soap is used for bathing. It is a potassium salt of fatty acids. It does not cause irritation of the skin.

• Cement = silica (sand), alumina (aluminium oxide), lime, iron oxide and magnesia (magnesium oxide).

• Portland cement is the most common = 60% lime (calcium oxide), 25% silica (silicon dioxide), 5% alumina. The rest is iron oxide and gypsum (calcium sulphate).

• Manganese gives pink tinge to glass.

• Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): propane and butane, in the ratio 30:70. ‘ethyl mercaptan’ which has a strong characteristic odour is added to it.

• when a planet or a star passes behind the moon, that state is called a ‘occultation’

• like alnico, Nipermag, an alloy of iron, nickel, aluminium and titanium is used to make magnets.